30. Asset Hierarchy (updated)

Updated August 9, 2019 (Original post October 23, 2014): To enable the definition of physical deliverables (Physical Assets) in a flexible manner, the concept of Asset Unit is needed (to be covered in a separate post). An Asset Unit combines: (i) a variable Asset Scale (e.g. a component, an assembly, a building, or a whole city) derived from the Asset Hierarchy (see below), with (ii) an Asset List defined by the Demand Entity (Employer, Client, Appointing Party) within an Information Cycle (a list of assets to be designed delivered, and/or utilised), and (iii) Asset Attributes derived from the Conceptual (BIM) Ontology (e.g. Asset Function, Asset Location, and Asset Cost).

image from
Asset Hierarchy – v2.0, 2018 (full size image) - Link to older version (v1, 2011) 


The Asset Hierarchy organises Physical Deliverables/Assets by relative scale by combining taxonomies developed by OSCRE[1] and Transport for North South Wales[2]. The diagram does not differentiate between assets – Buildings as a sample scale - by their size, monetary value, location, or designated function[3] - e.g. Cultural, Transportation, or Recreation[4] but by their granularity relative to each other. The diagram includes a numbering system (scale 10-70) to establish an Asset’s relative position on the scale. The diagram also highlights how:

  • The Assets Scale bridges the semantic and informational divide between three complementary industries and their respective information domains. At the upper-end of the scale, the Geospatial Industry and its Geographic Information System (GIS) domain overlaps with the Construction Industry and its BIM domain; while at the lower-end of the scale, it overlaps with the Manufacturing Industry and its Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) domain[5].
  • An Asset can be a member of three Asset Clusters:
    • An Asset Portfolio (scale 300) is a clustering of assets for the purposes of strategic investment, operation, and management. Asset Portfolios may also be referred to as ‘asset groupings’ or ‘asset systems’[6];
    • A Modular Assembly (scale 500) is a functional clustering of assets for the purposes of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DfMA) and similar offsite methods. Examples of Modular Assemblies and Sub-Assemblies include prefabricated houses, pre-assembled mechanical risers, and pre-constructed wall sections[7]. Treated as a single Asset Unit, a Modular Assembly can be (a) first developed and tested in digital space; (b) prototyped, manufactured, constructed, and/or pre-assembled offsite; (c) packaged and readied for transportation; (d) transported for storage on site or delivered Just-In-Time (JIT); and (e) unpacked, erected, and/or assembled; and
    • A Temporary Package (scale 700) is a clustering of assets for the purposes of transportation and storage logistics. Examples of Temporary Packages include standardised shipping containers and logistical package[8]. Temporary Packages also include bundled materials (e.g. a sandbag, load, or palette).
  • Systems are treated as dynamic sub-scales that – depending on the Physical Asset being measured – may be more/less granular than other assets. Systems span the entire hierarchy (from scale 15 to 65) and can flexibly connect information deliverables and requirements across the BIM, GIS, and PLM domains.


Using a variable Asset Scale allows the dynamic assignment of less granular assets at the start of an information cycle. More information about how Asset Scales and Asset Units are used will be explained in future posts.



[1] Fuhrman, A. (2007). The Hybrid Taxonomy Real Estate Focus, The Open Standards Consortium for Real Estate (OSCRE).

[2] TfNSW. (2015). Systems Engineering, Transport for NSW, New South Wales Government (T MU AM 06006 GU). Retrieved from Last accessed Aug 9, 2019

[3] Assets can be classified under many concepts which should not be combined in a single taxonomy. Information Actors will need to identify the number of classifications needed to manage their asset information. For example, an Information Actor may use three primary classifications to identify a Physical Asset: Asset Scale (e,g. Lighting System), Asset Function (Lighting), and Asset Location (e.g. In Room 391 or along Highway A5, Exit Ramp 17).

[4] OmniClass. (2013). OmniClass | Construction Classification System, Retrieved from; and NBS. (2015). UniClass 2015 (1.7 ed.). Retrieved from Last accessed Aug 9, 2019.

[5] Overlaps between the BIM and GIS/PLM domains are well-covered in: Song, Y., Wang, X., Tan, Y., Wu, P., Sutrisna, M., Cheng, J. C., & Hampson, K. (2017). Trends and Opportunities of BIM-GIS Integration in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction Industry: A Review from a Spatio-Temporal Statistical Perspective. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 6(12), 397; and in Jupp, J. R., & Singh, V. (2014). Similar concepts, distinct solutions, common problems: learning from PLM and BIM deployment. Paper presented at the IFIP International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management.

[6] ISO. (2014). ISO 55000:2014 Asset management - Overview, principles and terminology. Retrieved from Last accessed Aug 9, 2019

[7] BWTL. (2018). Platforms Bridging the gap between construction + manufacturing, Brydon Wood Technology Limited (BWTL) for the Centre for Digital Built Britain (CDBB), University of Cambridge. Retrieved from Last accessed Aug 9, 2019

[8] Saghir, M. (2004). The concept of packaging logistics. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual POMS Conference, Cancun, April.

40. Information Taxonomy

Updated Feb 20, 2020, to align with Paper A11 - original June 20, 2016 (download), modified Nov 29 and Jun 20, 2019.

The Information Taxonomy (previously Project Information Taxonomy) extends the Modular Requirements Clarification Language first introduced in Paper A10. The taxonomy currently includes concepts/terms to be used in defining information requirements within mission-critical documentation (e.g. within an Employer’s Information Requirements (EIR), a BIM Management Plan (BMP) or similar).

The term ‘information’ – here used to describe Digital Assets - can be subdivided into three Information Representation Types or ‘digital artefacts’- documents, models, and data:

  • Document: A medium (e.g. an email, web page, or a PDF document) carrying a variety of information including text, metadata, or embedded 3D models. A document refers to “information and its supporting medium” [i.e. when the information is placed within a medium, it becomes a document] ….“the medium can be paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc, photograph or master sample, or a combination thereof” (ISO, 2009, Item 4.5), adapted from ISO (2015, Item 3.7.2). In this study, the term Document will refer to a digital medium or an analogue medium to be digitised in preparation for management and utilisation. When referring to non-digital documents, the term will be qualified (as in paper document). Examples of Documents include a Master Plan Drawing, a Performance Certificate, and an Audit Report;
  • Model: A “representation of a system that allows for investigation of the properties of the system” (ISO, 2016). As a term, it may refer to digital models (e.g. shell/boundary or solid geometry graphical models); physical models (e.g. a sandcastle, LEGO model, or 3D printed shapes); or financial, mathematical, and conceptual models. In this study, unless qualified, the term Model will refer to a three-dimensional digital medium carrying a variety of information and – potentially - embedding or referencing both Documents and Data sets. A Model can represent a discipline/specialty (e.g. architectural model), a state (e.g. record model), or a base technology (e.g. object-based model); and
  • Data: A digital sequence of symbols – typically letters and numbers - that can be collected and parsed/ interpreted by an actor. Data may be statically embedded within Documents and Models or drive their dynamic generation/ modification - adapted from ISO/IEC (2015). Data can be captured through sensors, actuators, and scanners (Gubbi, Buyya, Marusic, & Palaniswami, 2013); derived from connected data sources; or generated through machine learning. The term Data may be coupled with other terms preceding it (e.g. structured, unstructured, or meta-Data) or following it (e.g. Data cloud, object, routine, script, set, or table) to indicate either functional groupings, relationship structures, internal cohesion, semantic inferences, coded computer instructions, or ‘as a variety of charts and diagrams’ (Sowa & Zachman, 1992). In this study, and unless qualified, the term Data will refer to digital computable data. Data sourced from analogue devices (e.g. liquid thermometers and legacy imaging equipment) need to be digitised before it can be utilised and managed.

This representational subdivision is utilitarian and is intended for practical purposes: allow more accurate identification of targeted digital deliverables and – as illustrated in the Information Taxonomy below – provide flexibility in specifying information delivery uses, views, view definitions, viewers, and environments

Information Taxonomy - Table v2.0

Information Use: The intended uses/applications of information

Document Use

The intended or expected types of deliverables from developing and exchanging information through Documents

Examples: document-based reporting, certifying, or warranting

Model Use

The intended or expected types of deliverables from generating, collaborating-on and linking Models to external databases

Examples: model-based representing, simulating, or quantifying

Data Use

The intended or expected types of deliverables from generating, exchanging, and manipulating Data

Example: data mining or scripting (e.g. using code to drive cutting, milling or sintering equipment)

Information View: How information is represented to enable its use

Document View

A view enabling one or more Document Uses. A Document View can be a drawing, schedule, report, an instruction memo, or a set of specifications. A Document View may be drafted (computer-assisted) by a human-actor or derived automatically from a Model or Data source

Example: Product Data Sheet or Room Data Sheet (a drawing detailing an operator’s requirements for each room type including room layout, furniture, fittings, equipment, and surface finishes)

Model View

A view enabling one or more Model Uses. A Model View can be a static/ dynamic 3D view, an animation, or a holograph. A Model View follows the specifications within its corresponding Model View Definition or reflects custom project/asset requirements

Examples: Model View showing only Architectural elements, or another showing both Mechanical and Structural elements within a Model Viewer (see further below)

Data View

A view enabling one or more Data Uses. A Data View can be a code snippet, a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) file, an XML/JSON file, or similar

Examples: a data chart, a node-link diagram, an If This Then That (IFTTT) recipe, an FME translator, or a visual script in Grasshopper or Dynamo

Information View Definition: How Information Views are defined for consistent use of information

Document View Definition

A specification (or template) which identifies the contents, attributes, and formats of Document Views (see above). Document View Definitions are typically generated by authorities, technology advocates, and associations promoting standardisation

Examples: Product Data Template (a document identifying the information pertaining to a specified product - e.g. model, manufacturer, performance attributes, and maintenance requirements)

Model View Definition (MVD)

A specification which identifies the properties and specifies the exchange requirements of Model Views. A 'standardised' Model view Definition (MVD) can be a subset of an established schema (e.g. Industry Foundation Classes), typically intended for software developers (not end users) to implement into their Software Tools (ISO, 2016)

Example: the IFC4 Design Transfer View by buildingSMART International

Data View Definition

A specification which identifies the properties and specifies the exchange requirements of Data Views. Data View Definitions are typically generated by information actors to formalise data exchange scenarios and harmonise data analysis methods

Examples: a data representation template, data translation script, or data analysis formula

Information Viewer: The software allowing access to information by human actors

Document Viewer

A software application allowing users to inspect and manipulate information according to pre-set Document Views

Examples: PDF reader or a 2D CAD viewer

Model Viewer

A software application allowing users to inspect and navigate Models according to ad-hoc or standardised Model View Definitions

Example: BIM Vision, BIMx, Dalux, or Solibri Model Viewer

Data Viewer

A software application allowing users to inspect and manipulate data according to pre-set Data View Definitions

Examples: Tableau or Business Intelligence tools

Information Environment: The distributed digital ecosystem allowing the collation and utilisation of information by multiple stakeholders. An Information Environment may include a combination of software solutions connected to disparate data sources through middleware and plugins

Shared Document Environment

An ecosystem for managing documents, composed of several software modules – including a Document Viewer, and allowing the filtering of information by Document View

Example: A digital ecosystem built around a Document / Project Management System

Federated Modelling Environment

An ecosystem for managing Models, composed of several software modules - including a Model Viewer, and allowing the filtering of information by Model View

Example: A digital ecosystem built around a Model Server or BIM-enabled Software as a Service (SaaS)

Integrated Data Environment

An ecosystem for managing Data sets and structures, composed of several software modules – including a Data Viewer, allowing the filtering of information by Data View

Example: A digital ecosystem built around Data Warehousing and Data Integration solutions


More info

This post is part of the BIMe Initiative Integrated Information Platform project and contributes to the ongoing effort to clarify the language used (or to be used) in defining project requirements within Noteworthy BIM Publications. Some of the concepts introduced above are still being refined, connected and reconnected to multiple models, taxonomies and classifications. For an up-to-date description of these concepts and their relations, please refer to respective terms within the BIM Dictionary.



[1] A document refers to “information and its supporting medium” [i.e. when the information is placed on a medium, it becomes a document] … “The medium can be paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc, photograph or master sample, or a combination thereof” – [SOURCE: ISO 14050:2009, 4.5 - adapted from ISO 9000:2005, 3.7.2]

[2] Another definition is a “representation of a system that allows for investigation of the properties of the system” [SOURCE: ISO 29481-1:2016(en) Building information models — Information delivery manual — Part 1: Methodology and format]

[3] “a reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or communication, or processing” [SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993, Information technology — Vocabulary — Part 1: Fundamental terms.01.01.02]

[4] Note: Documented Project Information should not be confused with Documented Information which is defined in ISO 9001:2015 as meaningful data that is required to be controlled and maintained by the organization and the medium on which it is contained (Source: ABP Consultant)

39. Model Uses Taxonomy

Model-Uses-TaxonomyFigure 1. Model Uses Taxonomy (Full Size)

The Model Uses Taxonomy organises Model Uses into a tiered structure that allows: (a) collation of Model Uses from across different industries; (b) close alignment with the Competency Taxonomy (Succar et al., 2013 -; (c) custom use-cases for unique projects; and (d) future expansion towards whole of life cycle classifications.

The Model Uses Taxonomy includes 3 Categories and 9 Series:

Category I: General Model Uses represent all Modelling Information as applicable across various knowledge domains, industries, and information systems. General Model Uses are organised a single Series, General Modelling (1000-1990) and include the word ‘modelling’ in their name to differentiate them from other categories (e.g. Audio-visual Systems Modelling or Urban Modelling);

Category II: Domain Model Uses represent industry-specific Modelling Information. The Construction Domain Model Uses are organised in seven Series:

CATEGORY III: Custom Model Uses are a combination of General and Domain Model Uses to respond the non-typical requirements of a specific project. Custom Model Uses are organized under a single Series, Custom Modelling (9000-9990) - e.g. Modelling security systems for a correctional facility.

 Please Note:

  1. The Model Uses Taxonomy was published as part of  BIM ThinkSpace Episode 24 (Sep 9, 2015).
  2. Please also refer to earlier post: Model Uses Conceptual Structures (Sep 9, 2015)
  3. There are currently 125 Model Uses across all categories and series (as of March 24, 2016). For a full list, please refer to

27. Conceptual Hierarchy

image from www.bimframework.infoConceptual Hierarchy Current Version, full-size image (older version v1.0)

The BIM framework is composed of several interrelated conceptual constructs: models, taxonomies, classifications and dictionaries. A common conceptual ontology connects all conceptual constructs and makes explicit the relationship between them. Below is a generic description of the depicted conceptual parts:

Frameworks show “the gestalt, the structure, the anatomy or the morphology of a field of knowledge or the links between seemingly disparate fields or sub-disciplines” (Reisman, 1994, p. 92).

Models (conceptual models) are simplified representations and abstractions of the “enormous richness of this world” (Ritter, 2010, p. 360) (Lave & March, 1993).

Taxonomies are an efficient and effective way to organize and consolidate knowledge (Reisman, 2005) (Hedden, 2010). A well-structured taxonomy allows “the meaningful clustering of experience” (Kwasnik, 1999, p. 24).

Classifications are the “meaningful clustering of experience” (Kwasnik, 1999, p. 24) and “lies at the heart of every scientific field” (Lohse, Biolsi, Walker, & Rueter, 1994, p. 36). Classification is also a heuristic tool useful during the formative stages of discovery, analysis and theorizing (Davies, 1989).

Dictionaries constitute a web of meaning (Cristea, 2004) connecting terms to each other and to other knowledge bases.

25. Knowledge Content Taxonomy

  BIM Knowledge Content Clusters v1.2

Updated April 11, 2016: The Knowledge Content Taxonomy (KCT) - previously referred to as the BIM Knowledge Content (BKC) taxonomy - includes several classifications. The main one identifies three knowledge content clusters (guides, protocols and mandates) which are subdivided into eighteen knowledge content labels (e.g. report, manual, and contract). As described in the Noteworthy BIM Publications image, the KCT and its classifications are derived from the explicit ontological structures of the BIM Framework (Succar, 2009 - Paper A2) (Succar, 2013 - Thesis). KCT labels and clusters classify NBPs according to their actual knowledge content rather than according to each publication’s title or its specific – and sometime conflicting - use of terminology. A succinct definition of the three KCT clusters is provided below:

  • Guides: documents which are descriptive and optional. Guides clarify goals, report on       surveys/accomplishments or simplify complex topics. Guides do not provide detailed steps to follow to attain a goal or complete an activity;
  • Protocols: documents which are prescriptive and optional. Protocols provide detailed steps or conditions to reach a goal or deliver a measureable outcome. While documents within this cluster are prescriptive, they are optional to follow unless dictated within a Mandate (see next cluster); and
  • Mandates: documents which are prescriptive and dictated by an authority. Mandates identify what should be delivered and – in some cases – how, when and by whom it should be delivered.

When used to assess NBPs, the three KCT clusters would inform country-scale BIM maturity assessment. For example, a country, with all its NBPs pertaining to a single cluster (e.g. guides – descriptive and optional), would arguably face different implementation challenges to those faced by a country with its NBPs distributed across guides, protocols and mandates.

Updated Feb 14, 2018 (removed an example): below is the BIM Knowledge Content taxonomy (v1.35): 18 content labels in three content clusters as republished in Paper B1:







Best Practice

Operational methods arising from experience; promoted as advantageous; and replicable by other individuals, organizations and teams. This label applies to publications which list unambiguous and detailed recommendations, and which if applied as recommended, generate similar advantageous outcomes



Case Study

Summary and analysis (descriptive or explanatory) of projects and organizational efforts. This label applies to both research and industry publications which share lessons learned by others, and cover BIM deliverables, workflows, requirements, challenges and opportunities



Framework or Model

Theoretical structures explaining or simplifying complex aspects of a domain by identifying meaningful concepts and their relationships




Compilation of several BIM content types with the aim of providing guidance to individuals, teams or organizations. Guides typically provide insight into a complex topic (e.g. BIM Implementation Guide or Facility Handover Guide). Guides typically focus on knowledge-intensive topics, while Manuals (a complementary label) focus on skill-intensive ones. Due to the generic nature of this label, it should not be applied in isolation but in conjunction with other labels



Learning Module or Material

All types of analogue and digital media (e.g. printed manual or online videos) which deliver conceptual or practical insight intended/suitable for education, training or professional development within industry or academia




Compilation or summary of results arising from an assessment, calculation or review process (e.g. BIM capability report or profitability statement)



Strategy or Vision

Articulation of vision, mission and long-term goals. This label applies to publications which identify a long-term strategy (and possibly middle-term goals/milestones) but without identifying the resources required and detailed steps needed to fulfill the strategy



Taxonomy or Classification

Classification covering roles, types, levels, elements and other structured concepts. This label applies to publications which introduce classifications of five or more items within a structured list; and which have a clear use in assessment, learning or implementation (e.g. construction elements, BIM roles, data exchange types or levels of detail)



Metric or Benchmark

Tools and criteria suitable for establishing levels of performance of systems, projects, individuals, teams, organizations and other organizational units[1]. This label applies to publications which include tools or explicit metrics/indicators for establishing usability, profitability, productivity, competency, capability or similar




A structured document which is intended to clarify the steps needed to perform a measureable activity or deliver a measureable outcome (e.g. BIM Training Manual). Manuals typically focus on skill-intensive topics, while Guides (a complementary label) typically focus on skill-intensive ones. Due to the generic nature of this label, it should not be applied in isolation but in conjunction with other labels




A document describing activities to be performed, resources to be used and milestones to be reached within a defined timeframe. This label applies to publications describing – in adequate detail - how a specific strategy can be fulfilled or a pre-defined goal can be reached (e.g. a BIM Implementation Plan detailing how to fulfill a BIM Capability Strategy)



Procedure or workflow

Structured information covering successive steps needed to fulfill an operational, rather than strategic, requirement. A documented Procedure includes the small steps needed to deliver, if executed by a competent individual, a pre-defined and desired outcome. A Workflow identifies major successive activities to be performed and decision gates to pass-through towards reaching a delivery milestone or fulfilling a project/organizational objective



Protocol or Convention

Agreed or customary method of product/service development or delivery which are not by themselves contractually binding (e.g. keeping minutes of meetings, how to name files and frequency of exchanging models)



Specification or Prescription

A set of criteria used to define or judge the quality of products (e.g. object dimensions or data richness) and services (e.g. timeliness). Specifications may or may not be a Standard (a separate label)



Standard or Code

Detailed set of product/service descriptions (prescriptive or performance-based) acting as a reference to be measured against. This label typically denotes a set of specifications (a separate label) which are authoritative and test-proven (e.g. barrier-free or accessibility standards)



Contract or Agreement

Legally-binding document and its subparts – including contractual additions, amendments and disclaimers. This label applies to contracts and clauses, not to publications describing or promoting them (e.g. the label applies to AIA Documents E203, G201 and G202 but not to the AIA IPD guide)



Program or Schedule

A document associating one or more classification to time and/or location. For example, a BIM competency improvement program is a document linking BIM competencies, BIM roles (and possibly other classifications) to a timeline or target dates



Requirement, Rule or Policy

Expectation or qualification mandated by clients, regulatory authorities or similar parties. This label applies to publications with explicit identification of requirements to be met (e.g. organizational capability or previous experience) or products/services to be delivered (e.g. a tender/bid document)

[1] There are 12 organizational units, each with their own unique metrics (refer to Building Information Modelling Maturity Matrix (Succar, 2010).


24. Noteworthy BIM Publications

  Noteworthy BIM Publications Map v1

Noteworthy BIM publications (NBP)s are publically-available documents developed by various industry and academic entities; aimed at a wide audience; and intended to promote BIM understanding, regulate BIM implementation or mandate BIM requirements. These publications encapsulate extensive BIM-focused knowledge; collate significant domain expertise; and represent a substantial effort within the BIM domain.

NBPs are identified based on explicit ontological structures derived from the interaction of BIM Fields and BIM Lenses:

  • NBPs are documents (i.e. not websites, blogs or similar);
  • NBPs reflect BIM knowledge (i.e. publications focused on BIM skill are excluded);
  • NBPs are the deliverables of BIM players (i.e. publications delivered by players from other industries are excluded);
  • NBPs cover relevant BIM topics (i.e. publications covering pre-BIM topics are excluded);
  • NBPs are macroscopic (i.e. documents aimed at small groups of practitioners or students are excluded); and
  • NBPs are selected and organized by country of origin

Using these framework-based delimitations, NBPs represent numerous types of published documents spanning industry initiatives, peer-reviewed journals, self-published books and other noteworthy publications.

19. Competency Units of Analysis

Competency Units of Analysis v1.2

This conceptual model identifies several units for the purposes of competency analysis:

  1. Individual competency is the unit measure of an individual’s ability to conduct an activity and deliver an outcome. Individual competency applies to a single person irrespective of role, position or employment status;
  2. Group competency is the arithmetic sum of several individual competencies but – as a measure - does not reflect the efficiencies gained or lost from such an aggregation;
  3. Organizational capability is the unit measure of an organization’s ability and its sub-organizational units (branches, departments, business streams, etc.); and
  4. Team capability is the unit measure of team members’ combined abilities. As opposed to group competency, team capability reflects the routines and dynamics of aggregation (e.g. team compatibility, communication and collaboration). There are at least three sub-units of team capability:
  • Work Team (WT) capability applies to a purposeful group of individuals working together to deliver a project/outcome within an organization or an organizational unit;
  • Project Team (PT) capability applies to a purposeful group of individuals working together to deliver a project/outcome across two or more organizations; and
  • Organizational Team (OT) capability applies to two or more organizations working together (through partnering, alliancing, etc.) to pursue a common mission or deliver a common project/outcome.

17. Competency Hierarchy

  BIMe Competency Hierarchy v1.3

The BIM Competency Hierarchy includes three BIM competency tiers which are divided into several BIM competency sets which are, in turn, subdivided into BIM competency topics. These tiers, sets, topics - and their granular subdivision into competency items - represent all the measureable abilities, outcomes and activities of individuals who deliver model-based products and services.

12. BIM Capability Sets


BIM Capability Sets v4.1

Updated April 18, 2014... BIM Capability Sets is a taxonomy representing BIM Player’s abilities to satisfy a BIM Requirement or generate a BIM Deliverable. A BIM Capability Set is a hierarchical collection of BIM abilities identified using the BIM Framework ( (refer to Structure of BIM Capability Sets) for the purposes of BIM implementation and assessment. 

Please note that the term BIM Capability Sets is used for staged capability improvement at Organizational Scales 1-10 (thus excludes OScales 12 Individual and 11 Group). It should not be confused with the BIM Competency Hierarchy (with Competency Tiers, Competency Sets and Competency Topics), the taxonomy used for contiuous performance improvement at OScales 9-12.

11. Organizational Hierarchy


Organisational Hierarchy v2.0

Full-Size Image  (1.6MB)

The Organizational Hierarchy is a conceptual model based on the Organizational Scales' taxonomy which identifies 12 organizational scales ranging from Markets (OrgScale 1, the largest) to Individuals (OrgScale 12, the smallest). The 12 OrgScales belong to three OrgScale Clusters: Macro (1-7), Meso (8) and Micro (9-12).

The 12 OrgScales are:

  1. Global Market
  2. Defined Market (e.g. European Union or individual countries)
  3. SubMarket (e.g. regional, state or local markets)
  4. Industry (e.g. Construction Industry)
  5. Sector (e.g. Design or Construction Sectors)
  6. Discipline (e.g. structural or mechanical disciplines)
  7. Specialty (e.g. steel detailing or kitchen design specialties)
  8. Organizational Team (e.g. two or more organizations working on the same project)
  9. Organization (e.g. an engineering or construction company)
  10. Organizational Unit (a department, branch or business stream)
  11. Organizational Group (a group of individuals or a 'work team')
  12. Organizational Member (an individual)

The hierarchy is used as a Scoping Lens to isolate a specific scale of BIM Players thus enabling a more-targeted approach to BIM implementation and assessment.