34. Diffusion Areas

This conceptual model (Figure 1) clarifies how BIM Field types (technology, process and policy) interact with BIM Capability Stages (modelling, collaboration and integration) to generate nine areas for targeted BIM diffusion analysis and BIM diffusion planning:

  Diffusion-Areas

Figure 1. Diffusion Areas model v1.0 (full size, current version)

The nine diffusion areas, explored in the below table, can be assessed independently or collectively. For example, the diffusion of BIM software tools within a population (modelling technologies [1TE]) can be assessed separately, and using different assessment methods, than establishing the proliferation of integrated project delivery contracts (integration policies [3PO]). Also, the diffusion of multidisciplinary BIM educational curricula (collaboration policies [2PO]) can be assessed separately, or in combination with, the proliferation of collaborative BIM roles and responsibilities (collaboration processes [2PR]).

  Diffusion Areas Matrix

Table 1. Diffusion Areas matrix (with sample granular metrics within each diffusion area)

The nine diffusion areas, their structured subdivisions and combinations, provide an opportunity for granular assessments of BIM diffusion within a population of adopters. Rather than being treated uniformly as a single set of data, or separated into disparate topics without an underlying conceptual structure, the Diffusion Areas’ model (Figure 1) allows the generation of targeted ratings for comparative market analysis - as exemplified in Figure 2:

Diffusion-Areas-Comparison-Chart-sampleFigure 2. Diffusion Areas Comparison sample chart v1.1 - updated April 24, 2016  (full size, current version)

 

Below is a short video explaining the above, as available on the Framework's YouTube channel:

 

 

Please note that the above model, table and chart are part of five macro adoption models collated within "Succar, B., & Kassem, M. (2015). Macro-BIM adoption: Conceptual structures. Automation in Construction57, 64-79". Download full paper from here: http://bit.ly/BIMPaperA8


33. Difference between Lenses and Filters

  BIM Lenses and Filters

Lenses and Filters are investigative tools of enquiry and domain analysis allowing the discovery of concepts and relations. The difference between (BIM) Lenses and Filters can be summarised as such: Lenses are additive and are deployed from the ‘investigator’s side’ of BIM Field observation while Filters are subtractive and are deployed from the ‘data side’. Lenses highlight observables that meet research criteria and identify their relations; example, an infrared lens highlights heat sources in a scene. Filters remove observables that do not meet the research criteria; example, data filters hides non-conforming data within a spreadsheet.


32. Relevance Metric

   NBP-RI-Sample-Chart-v0.2

NBP Relevance Index - Sample Chart v0.2 (Full Size Image - 102Kb)

The Relevance Metric is primarily used to compare the relevance (impact, currency and authority) of one entity relative to another, or relative to a specific stakeholder group. For example the Noteworthy BIM Publication Relevance Index (NBP-RI) compares the relevance of an NBP relative to other NBPs within and across markets. It can be also used to establish the relevance of an NBP to a group of practitioners, policy makers or researchers at a specific organizational scale - e.g. the relevance of NBIMS-US to contractors in the US (OrgScale 2), or relevance of PAS1192-4 to facility owners worldwide (OrgScale1). 

Relevance is measured using a five-level index (R0-R4). Below is an explanation of each level as applied within Paper B2:

  • R0 - Redundant: the NBP includes out-dated information which is no longer usable or useful
  • R1 - Relevant: the NBP is relevant, current and contains actionable information
  • R2 - Regarded: the NBP is highly-relevant, well-cited and well-used in comparison to other similar-topic NBPs
  • R3 - Recommended: the NBP is authoritative and impactful and considered a reference (among other references)
  • R4 - Requisite: the NBP is the most authoritative document covering a specific topic

Please note that the NBP-RI applies to all types of noteworthy publications. However, academic articles and scientific papers typically resort to more specialised metrics for establishing topical relevance and publications' overall impact.


31. Research Continuum

Research-Continuum-v1.1-Small

Research Continuum v1.1 (partial, showing sample relations | Full Size - 1.1Mb)

The Research Continuum v1.1 represents a network of conceptual and practical deliverables across a number of papers till December 2013 (model to be updated in 2016). The continuum highlights how each paper delivers a number of conceptual constructs which either extend earlier constructs/tools or support the development of new ones. Constructs are hierarchical  - frameworks, models, taxonomies, classifications and dictionary terms - yet interconnect through explicit ontological relations. At the bottom of the image are sample Knowledge Tools TL1-TL5 (e.g. TL4 is the online BIM Dictionary) which are dependent on these conceptual constructs. 

Updated 19 July 2016: The continuum clarifies how the BIM Maturity Matrix (TL2 - a practical tool introduced in Paper A3 and later released in a number of  languages) is dependent on several models (e.g. MD7-MD9), which are in-turn ontologically-connected to a number of taxonomies, classifications and dictionary terms.


30. Asset Hierarchy

Asset Hierarchy Across 3 Scales

 

This conceptual model (unpublished) is a taxonomic subdivision between three overlapping domains -  Building Information Modelling (BIM), Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM). The subdivision is based on four criteria (classes):

  • Asset Scale -  e.g. Built Environment or Building
  • Industry - e.g. Geospatial or Manufacturing
  • Applicable Acronym – e.g. BIM or PLM
  • Typical Unit of Measurement – e.g. Meters or Millimetres

Other criteria can be added to differentiate, qualify or compare the three domains


29. Research Path

  

 

Research-Path-v1.3-Large

Full Size Image (Research Path v1.3 - 378 kb) 

The Research Path identifies the major milestones along four research sub-paths: literature review, research methodology, conceptual development and data collection. This visual knowledge model (VKM) also identifies a number of ongoing research activities pursuant to each research sub-path. 

Note: the importance of a clearly defined research path cannot be understated. However, allowing oneself to diverge into inter-connected sub-paths (a network of tunnels dug underneath the main topic) is an excellent mechanism for knowledge exploration and discovery.


27. Conceptual Hierarchy

image from www.bimframework.infoConceptual Hierarchy Current Version, full-size image (older version v1.0)

The BIM framework is composed of several interrelated conceptual constructs: models, taxonomies, classifications and dictionaries. A common conceptual ontology connects all conceptual constructs and makes explicit the relationship between them. Below is a generic description of the depicted conceptual parts:

Frameworks show “the gestalt, the structure, the anatomy or the morphology of a field of knowledge or the links between seemingly disparate fields or sub-disciplines” (Reisman, 1994, p. 92).

Models (conceptual models) are simplified representations and abstractions of the “enormous richness of this world” (Ritter, 2010, p. 360) (Lave & March, 1993).

Taxonomies are an efficient and effective way to organize and consolidate knowledge (Reisman, 2005) (Hedden, 2010). A well-structured taxonomy allows “the meaningful clustering of experience” (Kwasnik, 1999, p. 24).

Classifications are the “meaningful clustering of experience” (Kwasnik, 1999, p. 24) and “lies at the heart of every scientific field” (Lohse, Biolsi, Walker, & Rueter, 1994, p. 36). Classification is also a heuristic tool useful during the formative stages of discovery, analysis and theorizing (Davies, 1989).

Dictionaries constitute a a web of meaning (Cristea, 2004) connecting terms to each other and to other knowledge bases.


26. Macro Maturity Components

Macro-Maturity-Components-v1.2Macro Maturity Components  - v1.2 full size (500Kb),  older version 1.1 (277Kb)

Also Available in Italian

The Macro Maturity Components model (upadated Nov 17, 2014) identifies eight complementary components for measuring and establishing the relative and absolute BIM maturity of Macro Organizational Scales (Market, Defined Market and Sub-Market). The eight components are:

  1. Objectives, stages and milestones
  2. Champions and drivers
  3. Regulatory framework
  4. Noteworthy publications
  5. Learning and education
  6. Measurements and benchmarks
  7. Standardised parts and deliverables
  8. Technology infrastructure

The components are measured individually and collectively using the BIM Maturity Index (BIMMI) which includes 5 levels: (a) initial/ad-hoc, (b) defined, (c) managed, (d) integrated, and (e) optimised.

Note: the Macro Maturity Components model is discussed in BIM ThinkSpace Episode 22 (published Jan 27, 2015).


Note 1: the Macro Maturity Components model was first introduced as "BIM Implementation Components at Defined Market Scale v0.1" at the “8th IBS Roundtable: Mechanisation through Building Information Modelling (BIM), November 2011 – Malaysia”. Click here to view the superseded model.

Note 2: the current version benefited from the excellent feedback and model validation efforts of Dr Mohamad Kassem of Teesside University (UK).


25. Knowledge Content Taxonomy

  BIM Knowledge Content Clusters v1.2

Updated April 11, 2016: The Knowledge Content Taxonomy (KCT) - previously referred to as the BIM Knowledge Content (BKC) taxonomy - includes several classifications. The main one identifies three knowledge content clusters (guides, protocols and mandates) which are subdivided into eighteen knowledge content labels (e.g. report, manual, and contract). As described in the Noteworthy BIM Publications image, the KCT and its classifications are derived from the explicit ontological structures of the BIM Framework (Succar, 2009 - Paper A2) (Succar, 2013 - Thesis). KCT labels and clusters classify NBPs according to their actual knowledge content rather than according to each publication’s title or its specific – and sometime conflicting - use of terminology. A succinct definition of the three KCT clusters is provided below:

  • Guides: documents which are descriptive and optional. Guides clarify goals, report on       surveys/accomplishments or simplify complex topics. Guides do not provide detailed steps to follow to attain a goal or complete an activity;
  • Protocols: documents which are prescriptive and optional. Protocols provide detailed steps or conditions to reach a goal or deliver a measureable outcome. While documents within this cluster are prescriptive, they are optional to follow unless dictated within a Mandate (see next cluster); and
  • Mandates: documents which are prescriptive and dictated by an authority. Mandates identify what should be delivered and – in some cases – how, when and by whom it should be delivered.

When used to assess NBPs, the three KCT clusters would inform country-scale BIM maturity assessment. For example, a country, with all its NBPs pertaining to a single cluster (e.g. guides – descriptive and optional), would arguably face different implementation challenges to those faced by a country with its NBPs distributed across guides, protocols and mandates.

Updated Feb 14, 2018 (removed an example): below is the BIM Knowledge Content taxonomy (v1.35): 18 content labels in three content clusters as republished in Paper B1:

Content
CLUSTER

Label
CODE

Content
LABEL

Label
DEFINITION - BIM specific

Guides

G1

Best Practice

Operational methods arising from experience; promoted as advantageous; and replicable by other individuals, organizations and teams. This label applies to publications which list unambiguous and detailed recommendations, and which if applied as recommended, generate similar advantageous outcomes

 

G2

Case Study

Summary and analysis (descriptive or explanatory) of projects and organizational efforts. This label applies to both research and industry publications which share lessons learned by others, and cover BIM deliverables, workflows, requirements, challenges and opportunities

 

G3

Framework or Model

Theoretical structures explaining or simplifying complex aspects of a domain by identifying meaningful concepts and their relationships

 

G4

Guideline

Compilation of several BIM content types with the aim of providing guidance to individuals, teams or organizations. Guides typically provide insight into a complex topic (e.g. BIM Implementation Guide or Facility Handover Guide). Guides typically focus on knowledge-intensive topics, while Manuals (a complementary label) focus on skill-intensive ones. Due to the generic nature of this label, it should not be applied in isolation but in conjunction with other labels

 

G5

Learning Module or Material

All types of analogue and digital media (e.g. printed manual or online videos) which deliver conceptual or practical insight intended/suitable for education, training or professional development within industry or academia

 

G6

Report

Compilation or summary of results arising from an assessment, calculation or review process (e.g. BIM capability report or profitability statement)

 

G7

Strategy or Vision

Articulation of vision, mission and long-term goals. This label applies to publications which identify a long-term strategy (and possibly middle-term goals/milestones) but without identifying the resources required and detailed steps needed to fulfill the strategy

 

G8

Taxonomy or Classification

Classification covering roles, types, levels, elements and other structured concepts. This label applies to publications which introduce classifications of five or more items within a structured list; and which have a clear use in assessment, learning or implementation (e.g. construction elements, BIM roles, data exchange types or levels of detail)

Protocols

P1

Metric or Benchmark

Tools and criteria suitable for establishing levels of performance of systems, projects, individuals, teams, organizations and other organizational units[1]. This label applies to publications which include tools or explicit metrics/indicators for establishing usability, profitability, productivity, competency, capability or similar

 

P2

Manual

A structured document which is intended to clarify the steps needed to perform a measureable activity or deliver a measureable outcome (e.g. BIM Training Manual). Manuals typically focus on skill-intensive topics, while Guides (a complementary label) typically focus on skill-intensive ones. Due to the generic nature of this label, it should not be applied in isolation but in conjunction with other labels

 

P3

Plan

A document describing activities to be performed, resources to be used and milestones to be reached within a defined timeframe. This label applies to publications describing – in adequate detail - how a specific strategy can be fulfilled or a pre-defined goal can be reached (e.g. a BIM Implementation Plan detailing how to fulfill a BIM Capability Strategy)

 

P4

Procedure or workflow

Structured information covering successive steps needed to fulfill an operational, rather than strategic, requirement. A documented Procedure includes the small steps needed to deliver, if executed by a competent individual, a pre-defined and desired outcome. A Workflow identifies major successive activities to be performed and decision gates to pass-through towards reaching a delivery milestone or fulfilling a project/organizational objective

 

P5

Protocol or Convention

Agreed or customary method of product/service development or delivery which are not by themselves contractually binding (e.g. keeping minutes of meetings, how to name files and frequency of exchanging models)

 

P6

Specification or Prescription

A set of criteria used to define or judge the quality of products (e.g. object dimensions or data richness) and services (e.g. timeliness). Specifications may or may not be a Standard (a separate label)

 

P7

Standard or Code

Detailed set of product/service descriptions (prescriptive or performance-based) acting as a reference to be measured against. This label typically denotes a set of specifications (a separate label) which are authoritative and test-proven (e.g. barrier-free or accessibility standards)

Mandates

M1

Contract or Agreement

Legally-binding document and its subparts – including contractual additions, amendments and disclaimers. This label applies to contracts and clauses, not to publications describing or promoting them (e.g. the label applies to AIA Documents E203, G201 and G202 but not to the AIA IPD guide)

 

M2

Program or Schedule

A document associating one or more classification to time and/or location. For example, a BIM competency improvement program is a document linking BIM competencies, BIM roles (and possibly other classifications) to a timeline or target dates

 

M3

Requirement, Rule or Policy

Expectation or qualification mandated by clients, regulatory authorities or similar parties. This label applies to publications with explicit identification of requirements to be met (e.g. organizational capability or previous experience) or products/services to be delivered (e.g. a tender/bid document)



[1] There are 12 organizational units, each with their own unique metrics (refer to Building Information Modelling Maturity Matrix (Succar, 2010).