Paper B1

25. Knowledge Content Taxonomy

  BIM Knowledge Content Clusters v1.2

Updated April 11, 2016: The Knowledge Content Taxonomy (KCT) - previously referred to as the BIM Knowledge Content (BKC) taxonomy - includes several classifications. The main one identifies three knowledge content clusters (guides, protocols and mandates) which are subdivided into eighteen knowledge content labels (e.g. report, manual, and contract). As described in the Noteworthy BIM Publications image, the KCT and its classifications are derived from the explicit ontological structures of the BIM Framework (Succar, 2009 - Paper A2) (Succar, 2013 - Thesis). KCT labels and clusters classify NBPs according to their actual knowledge content rather than according to each publication’s title or its specific – and sometime conflicting - use of terminology. A succinct definition of the three KCT clusters is provided below:

  • Guides: documents which are descriptive and optional. Guides clarify goals, report on       surveys/accomplishments or simplify complex topics. Guides do not provide detailed steps to follow to attain a goal or complete an activity;
  • Protocols: documents which are prescriptive and optional. Protocols provide detailed steps or conditions to reach a goal or deliver a measureable outcome. While documents within this cluster are prescriptive, they are optional to follow unless dictated within a Mandate (see next cluster); and
  • Mandates: documents which are prescriptive and dictated by an authority. Mandates identify what should be delivered and – in some cases – how, when and by whom it should be delivered.

When used to assess NBPs, the three KCT clusters would inform country-scale BIM maturity assessment. For example, a country, with all its NBPs pertaining to a single cluster (e.g. guides – descriptive and optional), would arguably face different implementation challenges to those faced by a country with its NBPs distributed across guides, protocols and mandates.

Updated Sep 20, 2015: below is the BIM Knowledge Content taxonomy (v1.3): 18 content labels in three content clusters as republished in Paper B1:

Content
CLUSTER

Label
CODE

Content
LABEL

Label
DEFINITION - BIM specific

Guides

G1

Best Practice

Operational methods arising from experience; promoted as advantageous; and replicable by other individuals, organizations and teams. This label applies to publications which list unambiguous and detailed recommendations, and which if applied as recommended, generate similar advantageous outcomes

 

G2

Case Study

Summary and analysis (descriptive or explanatory) of projects and organizational efforts. This label applies to both research and industry publications which share lessons learned by others, and cover BIM deliverables, workflows, requirements, challenges and opportunities

 

G3

Framework or Model

Theoretical structures explaining or simplifying complex aspects of a domain by identifying meaningful concepts and their relationships

 

G4

Guideline

Compilation of several BIM content types with the aim of providing guidance to individuals, teams or organizations. Guides typically provide insight into a complex topic (e.g. BIM Implementation Guide or Facility Handover Guide). Guides typically focus on knowledge-intensive topics, while Manuals (a complementary label) focus on skill-intensive ones. Due to the generic nature of this label, it should not be applied in isolation but in conjunction with other labels

 

G5

Learning Module or Material

All types of analogue and digital media (e.g. printed manual or online videos) which deliver conceptual or practical insight intended/suitable for education, training or professional development within industry or academia

 

G6

Report

Compilation or summary of results arising from an assessment, calculation or review process (e.g. BIM capability report or profitability statement)

 

G7

Strategy or Vision

Articulation of vision, mission and long-term goals. This label applies to publications which identify a long-term strategy (and possibly middle-term goals/milestones) but without identifying the resources required and detailed steps needed to fulfill the strategy

 

G8

Taxonomy or Classification

Classification covering roles, types, levels, elements and other structured concepts. This label applies to publications which introduce classifications of five or more items within a structured list; and which have a clear use in assessment, learning or implementation (e.g. construction elements, BIM roles, data exchange types or levels of detail)

Protocols

P1

Metric or Benchmark

Tools and criteria suitable for establishing levels of performance of systems, projects, individuals, teams, organizations and other organizational units[1]. This label applies to publications which include tools or explicit metrics/indicators for establishing usability, profitability, productivity, competency, capability or similar

 

P2

Manual

A structured document which is intended to clarify the steps needed to perform a measureable activity or deliver a measureable outcome (e.g. BIM Training Manual). Manuals typically focus on skill-intensive topics, while Guides (a complementary label) typically focus on skill-intensive ones. Due to the generic nature of this label, it should not be applied in isolation but in conjunction with other labels

 

P3

Plan

A document describing activities to be performed, resources to be used and milestones to be reached within a defined timeframe. This label applies to publications describing – in adequate detail - how a specific strategy can be fulfilled or a pre-defined goal can be reached (e.g. a BIM Implementation Plan detailing how to fulfill a BIM Capability Strategy)

 

P4

Procedure or workflow

Structured information covering successive steps needed to fulfill an operational, rather than strategic, requirement. A documented Procedure includes the small steps needed to deliver, if executed by a competent individual, a pre-defined and desired outcome. A Workflow identifies major successive activities to be performed and decision gates to pass-through towards reaching a delivery milestone or fulfilling a project/organizational objective

 

P5

Protocol or Convention

Agreed or customary method of product/service development or delivery which are not by themselves contractually binding (e.g. keeping minutes of meetings, how to name files and frequency of exchanging models)

 

P6

Specification or Prescription

A set of criteria used to define or judge the quality of products (e.g. object dimensions or data richness) and services (e.g. timeliness). Specifications may or may not be a Standard (a separate label). COBie is an example of BIM-related specifications which may become a service/delivery standard over time

 

P7

Standard or Code

Detailed set of product/service descriptions (prescriptive or performance-based) acting as a reference to be measured against. This label typically denotes a set of specifications (a separate label) which are authoritative and test-proven (e.g. barrier-free or accessibility standards)

Mandates

M1

Contract or Agreement

Legally-binding document and its subparts – including contractual additions, amendments and disclaimers. This label applies to contracts and clauses, not to publications describing or promoting them (e.g. the label applies to AIA Documents E203, G201 and G202 but not to the AIA IPD guide)

 

M2

Program or Schedule

A document associating one or more classification to time and/or location. For example, a BIM competency improvement program is a document linking BIM competencies, BIM roles (and possibly other classifications) to a timeline or target dates

 

M3

Requirement, Rule or Policy

Expectation or qualification mandated by clients, regulatory authorities or similar parties. This label applies to publications with explicit identification of requirements to be met (e.g. organizational capability or previous experience) or products/services to be delivered (e.g. a tender/bid document)



[1] There are 12 organizational units, each with their own unique metrics (refer to Building Information Modelling Maturity Matrix (Succar, 2010).

 


24. Noteworthy BIM Publications

  Noteworthy BIM Publications Map v1

Noteworthy BIM publications (NBP)s are publically-available documents developed by various industry and academic entities; aimed at a wide audience; and intended to promote BIM understanding, regulate BIM implementation or mandate BIM requirements. These publications encapsulate extensive BIM-focused knowledge; collate significant domain expertise; and represent a substantial effort within the BIM domain.

NBPs are identified based on explicit ontological structures derived from the interaction of BIM Fields and BIM Lenses:

  • NBPs are documents (i.e. not websites, blogs or similar);
  • NBPs reflect BIM knowledge (i.e. publications focused on BIM skill are excluded);
  • NBPs are the deliverables of BIM players (i.e. publications delivered by players from other industries are excluded);
  • NBPs cover relevant BIM topics (i.e. publications covering pre-BIM topics are excluded);
  • NBPs are macroscopic (i.e. documents aimed at small groups of practitioners or students are excluded); and
  • NBPs are selected and organized by country of origin

Using these framework-based delimitations, NBPs represent numerous types of published documents spanning industry initiatives, peer-reviewed journals, self-published books and other noteworthy publications.